The Book of Īmān

   Imām Abū ʿʿUbayd al-Qāsim ibn Sallām, Taḥqīq by Imām Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī

Narrations concerning īmān, what keeps it within a person, what invalidates it, and what causes it to increase and decrease. Also contains a biography of the author.

bismallah

  Indeed have you asked me about faith, and the difference of the nation concerning it’s completion and it’s increasing and decreasing, and you mentioned that you would like to know the position of Ahl al-Sunnah with regards to this, and the proof of those that differ from them on this. So indeed, may Allāh have mercy upon you, this subject was discussed by the Salaf at the beginning of this Ummah and by those that followed them (tābiʿīn) and those who followed them till this day of ours.

Biography of the Author:

He is Abū ʿUbayd al-Qāsim ibn Sallām al-Baghdādī, the Imām, the Mujtahid, the Ocean of knowledge, the Linguist and the Legal Jurist.

He was born in Harraa in about the year 158 and his father was a Roman slave to some of the people of Harraa.

He heard (learnt) from a group of the trustworthy Imāms, like Sufyān ibn Uyaynah, Ismāʿīl ibn Ulayyah, Yazīd ibn Hārūn, Yahya ibn Saʿīd al-Qattaan, Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Mahdī, Hammaad ibn Salma and others.

And Imām al-Dārimī, Abū Bakr ibn Abī ad-Dunya, ʿAlī ibn Abd al-ʿAzīz al-Baghawī, Muḥammad ibn Yahya al-Marwazī and others narrate from him.

Imām Ishāq ibn Rāhawayyah said: Allāh loves the truth, Abū ʿUbayd is more knowledgeable and has deeper understanding than me.

He also said: we are dependant upon Abū ʿUbayd, and Abū ʿUbayd is not dependant upon us.

Imām Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal said: Abū ʿUbayd is a teacher (Ustaadh) and every day he increases in good.

And Yahya ibn Ma’een was asked about him to which he replied that people should ask Abū ʿUbayd about him!

Abū Dāwūd said: trustworthy, reliable.

Al-Ḥāfiẓ al-Dhahabī said: whosoever looks into the books of Abū ʿUbayd will know his high rank in memorisation and knowledge, he was a ḥāfiẓ of ḥadīth and it’s defects. Knowledgeable of fiqh and the difference of opinions, a pillar in the Language, an Imām in recitation and he had books concerning them. I have come across his books, ‘Kitāb al-Amwaal’ and ‘Kitāb al-Nāsikh wal Mansookh’.

Al-Khatīb al-Baghdādī said: he was possessing nobility, religion, excellent manners, a good madhab and excellent books sought after in every land. And the narrators from him are famous and trustworthy. Deserving of mention and excellence, and his book concerning ‘al-Amwaal’ is one of the best books written on fiqh.

I say: despite these virtues and excellent qualities the Six Imāms (of the famous six books on ḥadīth) did not report any of his ḥadīth, and this is from the many evidences that they reported from only some of the trustworthy narrators of ḥadīth. So there is nothing strange, after knowing this, that Imām Bukhārī did not narrate from some of the trustworthy narrators from the Ahlul Bait, may Allāh be pleased with them.

From the words of Abū ʿUbayd, may Allāh have mercy upon him, are: the follower of the Sunnah is like one holding onto hot stones, and in this day he is more excellent in my eyes then the one who raises the sword in the Way of Allāh.

I say: this was in his time, so what would be said about our times?

He, may Allāh have mercy upon him, stayed in Baghdād for a time, then he became the Qaadee in Turtoos, then after that he moved to Mecca and he lived there until he died in the year 224.

Chapter 1: the Characteristics of faith concerning it’s completion and it’s levels

Indeed have you asked me about faith, and the difference of the nation concerning it’s completion and it’s increasing and decreasing, and you mentioned that you would like to know the position of Ahlus Sunnah with regards to this, and the proof of those that differ from them on this. So indeed, may Allāh have mercy upon you, this subject was discussed by the Salaf at the beginning of this ummah and by those that followed them (tābiʿīn) and those who followed them till this day of ours. And I have written to you a short explanation of what I know concerning this.

Know, may Allāh have mercy upon you, that the People of Knowledge and Concern for the religion have split into two groups over this issue.

One of them says: Faith is sincerity in the heart to Allāh, and testimony of the tongue, and action of the limbs.

The other says: Rather faith is in the heart and upon the tongue, and as for actions then they are from taqwá (God-consciousness) and birr (piety) and are not included in faith.

And we looked into the difference of opinion of these two groups, and we found that the Book and the Sunnah affirmed the truth of the group that made Faith intention, saying and action together, and negated the opinion of the other group.

And the basis of this, which is our proof, is following what the Qurʾān has spoken of, for indeed Allāh has said in the unequivocal verse of His Book, "so if you differ amongst yourselves on anything then refer it back to Allāh and the Messenger if you believe in Allāh and the Last Day, that is better and more suitable for final determination." (4:59) and so we referred the matter to that which Allāh sent His Messenger (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) with and revealed in His Book. So we found that He made the commencement of faith to be the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped except for Allāh and that Muḥammad is His Messenger (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam). And the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) remained in Mecca after his Prophethood for ten years or ten odd years calling to this testification only, and at that time nothing else was prescribed to be part of faith, so the one who responded to this call was a believer and it was not necessary to call him anything else but a believer, and Zakāh or fasting or the other regulations of the religion were not obligatory upon him. And as the scholars have said, this leniency at that time was a Mercy and Kindness from Allāh to His Servants, because they had just come out of the Jāhiliyyah and it’s harshness and had He charged them with all of the obligations then their hearts would have become averse to the revelation, and their bodies would have felt burdened. So He made the faith that was obligatory upon them at that time affirmation with the tongues only, and this is what made them to be believers during the whole of the Meccan period and ten odd months in Madīnah after the Hijrah.

Then, when the people had returned to Islām and their desire for it became good and proper, Allāh increased for them in their faith that they change the prayer direction to the Kaʿbah after they had been praying to Bail al-Maqdis, saying, "Verily We have seen the turning of your face towards the heaven. Surely, We shall give you a Qiblah that you are pleased with, so turn your face in the direction of the Holy Mosque. And wheresoever you people are, turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction." [2:144].

Then He addressed them, when they were in Madīnah, by the appellation of faith that had previously been given them whenever He ordered them with something or forbade them from something. So He said, while commanding, "O you who believe! Bow and prostrate" [22:77], "O you who believe! When you intend to offer prayer, wash your faces, and your arms upto the elbows." [5:6]. And he said, while prohibiting, "O you who believe! Do not devour usury doubled and multiplied." [3:130]. "O you who believe! Kill not game while you are in a state of ihraam" [5:95].

So in every address that was directed to them after the ḥijrah containing a command or prohibition, He named them with this name (believers) due to their affirming the shahādah alone - since at that time nothing else had been made obligatory for them. But afterwards, when the religious laws were revealed, these were made obligatory upon them in exactly the same way as the first obligation (of testifying to the shahādah) was, this because they were all from Allāh (sent) by His Command and Obligation. So if they had refused to turn to the direction of the Kaʿbah in their prayer and stuck to that faith [they had in the beginning of Islām] whose appellation they were ascribed to, and they had stuck to the qiblah that they used to pray towards, then this would not have helped them at all, and they would have violated their affirmation of the shahādah. This because the first obedience was not more deserving of the appellation of ‘faith’ then the second, so therefore when they responded to Allāh and His Messenger and accepted the (obligation of) prayer just as they had responded by affirming (the shahādah) then all of this would now be included in the appellation ‘faith’ - due to the prayer being added to the affirmation.

And the proof that the prayer is a part of faith is the saying of Allāh, Azza wa Jall, "And Allāh would never make your faith to be lost. Truly Allāh is full of Kindness, the Most Merciful towards mankind" [2:143]. This verse was revealed concerning some of the Companions of the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) who turned towards the Qiblah while they were praying in the direction of Bait al-Maqdis, so the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) was asked about this and then this verse was revealed. {1} So what proof is needed after this to show that prayer is part of faith?

So they remained like this for a period of time and when they started going to prayer eagerly and their hearts found it easy, Allāh revealed the obligation of Zakāh in their faith in addition to what had preceded, saying, "establish the prayer, and give the Zakāh" [2:83, 110]. And He said, "take sadaqah from their wealth in order to purify them and sanctify them with it." [9:103]. {2} So if they affirmed the shahādah with their tongues and established the prayers but they refused to give the Zakāh then this would have effaced all that came before this obligation and would have violated their affirmation (of the shahādah) that had preceded just as their aversion to the prayer would have violated their affirmation that preceded. And the testifier to the truth of this was the Jihād that Abū Bakr fought alongwith the Muhājirūn and the Ansār against those Arabs that refused to pay the Zakāh, just as the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) made Jihād against the People of Shirk. There is no difference between these two Jihāds with regards to shedding blood, taking children as captives, and taking the spoils of war. And all the Arabs did was to refuse to give Zakāh, not reject its institution.

Then all of the laws of Islām became like this, each time a law was revealed it became joined to the laws that had preceded, and all of them were included under the appellation of ‘faith’, and those that followed them were named believers.

This is the place in which those who held that faith was merely saying erred that when they heard Allāh calling them believers they attributed complete faith to them. And likewise they erred in their explanation of the ḥadīth of the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) when he was asked as to what faith was to which he replied, "that you believe in Allāh …." {3} And their explanation of the ḥadīth in which he (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) was asked by the one who had a believing slavegirl about freeing her so he ordered that she be free and he called her a believer. {4} These are to be taken to mean, as I have explained to you, their entering faith and their acceptance and belief in what had been revealed from it at that time. And indeed it was revealed in stages, just as the Qurʾān was revealed in stages.

And the witness and evidence for what we say is the Book of Allāh and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam). So from the Book of Allāh is His Saying, "and whenever there comes down a chapter (of the Qurʾān) some of them (the hypocrites) say: ‘Which of you has had his faith increased by it?’ As for those that believe, it has increased their faith, and they rejoice." [9:124] and His saying, "the believers are those who, when Allāh is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His verses are recited unto them, they increase their faith, and they put their trust in their Lord." [8:2] and other places in the Qurʾān similar to this.

Do you not see that Allāh, the Blessed and Exalted, did not reveal faith as one entity, just as he did not reveal the Qurʾān as one entity? So this is the proof from the Book - that if faith were complete with the affirmation of the shahādah, then there would be no meaning to ‘increasing faith’ and no need to mention this.

As for the proof from the Sunnah and narrations then they are mutawātir giving this meaning of increase in the tenants of faith. So in the following ḥadīth 4 (articles of faith) are mentioned, in the next 5, in the third 9, and in the fourth even more.

1. As for the ḥadīth in which 4 are mentioned is the ḥadīth of ibn ʿAbbās from the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) that an envoy from Abd al-Qays came to him and said, "O Messenger of Allāh indeed we are tribe from Rabīʿah and between us and you are the unbelievers of Madr who prevent us from coming to you, so we are unable to come to you except in the Sanctified Month, so command us with something that we may perform and call those that we have left behind to." So he said, "I command you with 4, and I forbid you from 4. Faith - then he explained this for them - to testify that none has the right to be worshipped except for Allāh, and that Muḥammad is the Messenger of Allāh, to establish the prayer, to give the Zakāh, and that you give a fifth of the war-booty. I forbid you from 4:…" {4a}

2. As for the ḥadīth in which 5 are mentioned then it is the ḥadīth of ibn ʿUmar that he heard the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) saying, "Islām is built upon 5 (pillars): the testimony that none had the right to be worshipped except Allāh, and that Muḥammad is the Messenger of Allāh, establishing the prayer, giving the Zakāh, fasting in Ramaḍān, and making pilgrimage to the House." {5}

3. As for the ḥadīth in which 9 are mentioned then it is the ḥadīth of Abū Hurayrah from the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) that he said, "indeed Islām has landmarks and lights as does a road. From them are: that you believe in Allāh and do not commit shirk with him, establish the prayer, give the Zakāh, fast in Ramaḍān, make pilgrimage to the House, enjoin the good, forbid the evil, that you give the salām to your family when you enter amongst them, and that you give salām to the people as you pass by them. So the one who leaves any of this [then he has left a portion of Islām, and the one who leaves all of them] has thrown Islām behind his back." {6}

4. So the ignorant people thought that all these aḥādīth were self contraḍīcting due to the variation of numbers in them, but they are, and all praise is due to Allāh, by His Mercy far from contraḍīction. For their difference lies in the fact that the obligations of Faith were revealed in stages. So each time Allāh revealed a new obligation of faith, it increased the number (of tenants of faith) until they reached 70 tenants as occurs in the ḥadīth that is established from him (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) that he said, "faith is seventy and odd branches, it’s most excellent is the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped except for Allāh, and it’s lowest is removing the harmful thing from the road." {7}

So even if these are more in number they still do not contraḍīct those aḥādīth that came before it for those refer to the foundations of faith whereas these refer to the branches of faith.

So we believe, and Allāh knows best, that this is the last statement with which the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) depicted Faith because the number finished at this, and with it the characteristics of faith were completed as is testified to by the saying of Allāh, "this day have I completed your religion for you, and perfected my favour upon you" (5:3).

5. Taariq ibn Shihaab reported that, "the Jews said to ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, may Allāh have mercy upon him, ‘indeed you recite a verse which had it been revealed amongst us we would have taken that day as an Eed,’ and this verse was mentioned. So ʿUmar said, ‘indeed I know when it was revealed and on what day it was revealed. [It was revealed] on the Day of Arafah and the Messenger (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) was standing on Arafah’". Sufyān said, "I do not know whether he said ‘on the Day of Jumuʿah’ or not" {8}

6. From ibn Abī Ammār who said, "ibn ʿAbbās recited this verse while there was a Jew in his presence. So the Jew said, ‘if this verse had been revealed amongst us we would have taken that day as an Eed.’ Ibn ʿAbbās replied, ‘it was revealed on the day of Eed, the day of Jumuʿah, the day of Arafah.’" {9}

7. From Sha’bee who said, "it was revealed upon him (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) while he was standing on Arafah when shirk had vanished, and the sign posts of the Jāhiliyyah had been destroyed, and not a statute remained hanging in the house" {10}

8. So Allāh, Exalted is He, mentioned the completion of the religion in this verse, and it was revealed 81 days before the death of the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) as is reported from ibn Juraij.

So if faith was complete by mere affirmation while the Messenger (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) was in Mecca as stated by these people then there would be no meaning to completion (of the religion), for how can something be completed that is already complete and come in its final form?!

Abū ʿUbayd (the author) said: so if someone were to ask you, 'so what are these 73 branches?' It would be said to him: these have not been named for us collectively so that we may mention them, but knowledge does allow us to say that they are from the actions of obedience to Allāh and taqwa But even though they may not have been mentioned in any specific ḥadīth, if you were to scrutinise the various narrations you would find them dispersed throughout them, did you not hear his saying concerning removing the harmful thing and that it was a branch of faith? And likewise his saying in another ḥadīth, "modesty is a branch of faith" {11), and in a third, "shame is branch of faith" {12}, and in a fourth, "ascetism is from faith" {13}, and in a fifth, "fulfilling contracts/promises is from faith" {14} So all of these are from the branches of faith, and from them is the ḥadīth of Ammār, "three (characteristics) are from faith: giving in charity freely, being just even at the expense of yourself, and spreading the salām amongst the people" {15}

Then there are the well known aḥādīth mentioning the completeness of faith wherein he (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) asked, "which creation is the greatest with respect to faith?" It was said: the Angels. Then it was said: us O Messenger of Allāh. So he said, "rather a nation that will come after you" {16}and he mentioned their characteristics. And from these is his saying, "indeed the believer with the most complete faith is the best of them in character." {17} And likewise his saying, "a man will not have complete faith until he leaves lying in jest, and arguing even if he be in the truth." {18} And a similar ḥadīth is reported from ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb and ibn ʿUmar. And clearer than this is the ḥadīth of the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) pertaining to the intercession wherein he said, "so the one whose heart contains a barley grains weight, and a wheat grains weight, and an atom's weight of faith will be removed from Hell." {19} And from them is the ḥadīth when he was asked about whispering, to which he replied, "that is the pure and unadulterated faith." {20} And likewise the ḥadīth of ʿAlī (AS), "indeed faith starts as a white spot in the heart, so each time faith increases, the white spot increases in magnitude." {21}

There are a great number of narrations concerning this whose mention will lengthen the discussion which serve to clarify to you the correlation of faith in the heart with actions, and all of them, or most of them, stress that righteous actions are from faith. {22} So how is it possible to oppose these by way of falsification or rejection?!

And from those things that testify to the truth of it's correlation with actions is the saying of Allāh, "the believers are only those whose hearts tremble when Allāh is mentioned, and when His verses are recited they increase them in faith, and upon their Lord they put their trust" (6:2) to his saying, "they are in truth the believers." {23} (6:3) So Allāh did not give faith a reality except with action upon these conditions (mentioned in the verse). And the one who thinks that merely a saying makes one a true and complete believer even if there is no action (accompanying the saying) is one who is opposing the Book of Allāh and the Sunnah.

And from those things that clarify the differing levels of faith in the heart is His saying, "O you who believe! When the believing women come to you as fugitives, test them" do you not see that here there is a level less than the complete level [in that Allāh has addressed the believers to test other believers] "Allāh Knows best their faith, then if you ascertain that they are true believers." (60:10) And likewise, His saying, "O you who believe! Believe in Allāh and His Messenger." (4:136) So if this was not a command to increase in one's faith then there would be no meaning in ordering the believers to believe in Allāh and His Messenger. Then He also says, "Alif Lām Mīm. Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: 'we believe' and will not be tested? And We tested those who were before them. And Allāh will certainly make it known (the truth of) those who are true, and will certainly make it known (the falsehood of) those who are liars." (29:1-3) And He said, "of mankind there are some who say: 'we believe in Allāh' but if they are made to suffer for the sake of Allāh they consider the trial of mankind as Allāh's Punishment." (29:10) And He said, "And that Allāh may test (or purify) the believers (from sins) and destroy the disbelievers." (3:141)

So do you not see Allāh trying the believers to attest their saying with action and not being Pleased with their merely affirming (the shahādah) without accompanying it with action? So what is there to be followed after the Book of Allāh, the Sunnah of His Messenger (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam), and the guidance of the Salaf after him - those who are our role-models and Imāms?!

So what have the scholars stated about this matter which we have declared to be the Sunnah? It is none other than that we have stated in this book of ours - that faith consists of intention, saying and action together, and that it has levels some above others, and that it's first and highest level is the testification with the tongue as the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) said in the ḥadīth in which he made faith to have seventy and odd branches. So if someone were to articulate this shahādah and accept that which has come from Allāh, the appellation of faith becomes incumbent upon him due to his entering it, and as he increases in obedience and taqwa to Allāh - his faith increases.


Endnotes:

{1} Narrated by Bukhārī from the ḥadīth of Baraa’a. And by al-Tirmidhī from the ḥadīth of ibn ʿAbbās and he authenticated it.

{2} I say: there are a number of Meccan verses which mention Zakāh, sometimes enjoining it, sometimes praising the one who gives it, and sometimes condemning the one who leaves it. So in Sūrah Muzzammil, "establish the prayer and give the Zakāh" [73:20], and in Sūrahs Naml and Luqmān, "Those who establish the prayers and give Zakāh and believe with certainty in the Hereafter." [27:3, 31:4]. And in Sūrah Fussilāt, "And woe to the polytheists, those who do not give the Zakāh, and they are disbelievers in the Hereafter," [41:6-7].

It is obvious that the meaning of Zakāt in these verses is obligatory Sadaqah without a set limit, and in Madīnah the limits were set. Allāh knows best.

{3} Indicating the ḥadīth of Jibraa’eel reported in the Two Ṣaḥīḥs from the ḥadīth of Abū Ḥurayrah, and reported by Muslim from the ḥadīth of ibn ʿUmar. See ḥadīth no.119 in ‘Kitāb al-Īmān’ of ibn Abī Shaybah.

{4}Indicating the ḥadīth of Muʿāwiyah ibn al-Hakm al-Silmee in which the Prophet (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) asked her, "where is Allāh", reported by Muslim. See ibn Abī Shaybah no.84

{4a} Reported by Muslim.

{5} I say: it’s isnād is ṣaḥīḥ according to the conditions of Bukhārī and Muslim and they reported it.

{6} A group report it, amongst them Haakim (1/21) who authenticated it to the condition of Bukhārī and al-Dhahabī agreed. And it is as they said, as I have researched in ‘Silsilah al-Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥihah."

{7} It’s isnād is ṣaḥīḥ according to the conditions of Muslim and he reported it from Jarīr from Suhail. And ibn Ijlān followed him reporting from ibn Dīnār. See ibn Abī Shaybah (no. 66)

{8} It’s chain of narration is authentic according to the criteria of Bukhārī and Muslim and they reported it. In the report of Muslim via the route of Abū Umais from Qays their occurs "it was revealed upon the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) on Arafah on the day of Jumuʿah."

{9} I.e. these three occasions fell on the same day [trans.]

{10} It’s chain of narration is mursal ṣaḥīḥ.

{11} Agreed upon from the ḥadīth of Abū Hurayrah. Consult ibn Abī Shaybah (no.66)

{12} Reported by al-Bazzaar and ibn Baṭṭah in 'al-Ibānah' from Abū Saʿīd from the Messenger (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) with a sanad containing someone who condition is unknown.

{13} Reported by Abū Dāwūd, ibn Mājah, and others from Abū Imāmah al-Ḥārithee from the Messenger (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam). Al-Ḥākim declared it ṣaḥīḥ and al-Dhahabī agreed.

{14} Ḥasan ḥadīth and al-Ḥākim declared it ṣaḥīḥ, and I have investigated it in 'Silsilah Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥihah'

{15} Reported as a ḥadīth of the Messenger (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam) and as a report from a Companion. And the strongest opinion is that it is a report from a Companion along with the fact that it's chain of narration contains someone who became confused. Consult the discussion and investigation concerning this in my endnotes to 'al-Kalim at-Tayyib' of ibn Taymīyyah (no.195), and ḥadīth (no. 125) of 'Īmān' of ibn Abī Shaybah. [It is in 'Ṣaḥīḥ Kalim at-Tayyib' under the chapter on 'salām' as a narration of Ammār ibn Yaasir - trans.]

{16} Reported by Ḥasan ibn Urfah in his 'Juz' (2/90) from Umru ibn Shuʿaib from his father from his grandfather from the Messenger, and it's chain of narration is ḍaʿīf. And al-Ḥākim reported it from the ḥadīth of ʿUmar and declared it ṣaḥīḥ and al-Dhahabī refuted him. And all of this is explained in 'Silsilah Aḥādīth al-Daʿīfah'

{17} A ṣaḥīḥ ḥadīth, and a group of scholars have authenticated it, and it is reported by ibn Abī Shaybah from the ḥadīth of Abū Hurayrah, Āʿishah, and Ḥasan al-Bʿasri, so consult our endnotes to it (no.'s 17, 20, 160)

{18} Reported by Aḥmad (2/352-353, 364) from the ḥadīth of Makhool from Abū Hurayrah from the Messenger (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam). And Makhool did not hear from Abū Hurayrah (raḍī Allāhu ʿanhū).

{19} Agreed upon from the ḥadīth of Anas (raḍī Allāhu ʿanhū) and it is reported by ibn Abī Shaybah (no. 35)

{20} Reported by Muslim and others from the ḥadīth of Abū Hurayrah, and it is investigated in 'Silsilah Aḥādīth al-Ṣaḥihah'

{21} And it is a report of ʿAlī (raḍī Allāhu ʿanhū) narrated by ibn Abī Shaybah (no.8) and it's chain of narration is munqati' as I have explained there.

{22} I say: you will see a good number of them in the book of ibn Abī Shaybah.

{23} The complete verse is "those that establish the prayer, and spend of that which We have provided them. They are in truth the believers."

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