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The Characteristics of the Student of Knowledge

  Abū Ḥafsah Kāshiff Khān

An introductory lecture to the seminar entitled, Indeed this Knowledge is Dīn So Look to Who You Take Your Religion From which took place in April 2014. The speaker introduces the theme by mentioning the first two ḥadīth mentioned by al-Nawawī and the  significance of them for the student of knowledge, setting out upon a path of guidance. Later, the seminar theme (the statement of Ibn Sīrīn) is discussed.


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عَنْ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَبِي حَفْصٍ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ: " إنَّمَا الْأَعْمَالُ بِالنِّيَّاتِ، وَإِنَّمَا لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مَا نَوَى، فَمَنْ كَانَتْ هِجْرَتُهُ إلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ فَهِجْرَتُهُ إلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ، وَمَنْ كَانَتْ هِجْرَتُهُ لِدُنْيَا يُصِيبُهَا أَوْ امْرَأَةٍ يَنْكِحُهَا فَهِجْرَتُهُ إلَى مَا هَاجَرَ إلَيْهِ". 
رَوَاهُ إِمَامَا الْمُحَدِّثِينَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ مُحَمَّدُ بنُ إِسْمَاعِيل بن إِبْرَاهِيم بن الْمُغِيرَة بن بَرْدِزبَه الْبُخَارِيُّ الْجُعْفِيُّ [رقم:1]، وَأَبُو الْحُسَيْنِ مُسْلِمٌ بنُ الْحَجَّاج بن مُسْلِم الْقُشَيْرِيُّ النَّيْسَابُورِيُّ [رقم:1907] رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا فِي "صَحِيحَيْهِمَا" اللذِينِ هُمَا أَصَحُّ الْكُتُبِ الْمُصَنَّفَةِ.

It is narrated on the authority of Amirul Mu'minin, Abū Hafs ʿUmar ibn al-Khattab, raḍīyallahu ʿʿʿanhu, who said:

I heard the Messenger of Allāh, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, say: "Actions are (judged) by motives (niyyah), so each man will have what he intended. Thus, he whose migration (ḥijrah) was to Allāh and His Messenger, his migration is to Allāh and His Messenger; but he whose migration was for some worldly thing he might gain, or for a wife he might marry, his migration is to that for which he migrated." [Al-Bukharī & Muslim]
 
عَنْ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ أَيْضًا قَالَ: " بَيْنَمَا نَحْنُ جُلُوسٌ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه و سلم ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ، إذْ طَلَعَ عَلَيْنَا رَجُلٌ شَدِيدُ بَيَاضِ الثِّيَابِ، شَدِيدُ سَوَادِ الشَّعْرِ، لَا يُرَى عَلَيْهِ أَثَرُ السَّفَرِ، وَلَا يَعْرِفُهُ مِنَّا أَحَدٌ. حَتَّى جَلَسَ إلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه و سلم . فَأَسْنَدَ رُكْبَتَيْهِ إلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ، وَوَضَعَ كَفَّيْهِ عَلَى فَخِذَيْهِ، 
وَقَالَ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ الْإِسْلَامِ. 
فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه و سلم الْإِسْلَامُ أَنْ تَشْهَدَ أَنْ لَا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، وَتُقِيمَ الصَّلَاةَ، وَتُؤْتِيَ الزَّكَاةَ، وَتَصُومَ رَمَضَانَ، وَتَحُجَّ الْبَيْتَ إنْ اسْتَطَعْت إلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا. 
قَالَ: صَدَقْت . فَعَجِبْنَا لَهُ يَسْأَلُهُ وَيُصَدِّقُهُ!
قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ الْإِيمَانِ. 
قَالَ: أَنْ تُؤْمِنَ بِاَللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ، وَتُؤْمِنَ بِالْقَدَرِ خَيْرِهِ وَشَرِّهِ.
قَالَ: صَدَقْت. قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ الْإِحْسَانِ. 
قَالَ: أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ كَأَنَّك تَرَاهُ، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تَرَاهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَرَاك. 
قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ السَّاعَةِ. قَالَ: مَا الْمَسْئُولُ عَنْهَا بِأَعْلَمَ مِنْ السَّائِلِ. 
قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ أَمَارَاتِهَا؟ قَالَ: أَنْ تَلِدَ الْأَمَةُ رَبَّتَهَا، وَأَنْ تَرَى الْحُفَاةَ الْعُرَاةَ الْعَالَةَ رِعَاءَ الشَّاءِ يَتَطَاوَلُونَ فِي الْبُنْيَانِ. ثُمَّ انْطَلَقَ، فَلَبِثْنَا مَلِيًّا، 
ثُمَّ قَالَ: يَا عُمَرُ أَتَدْرِي مَنْ السَّائِلُ؟. 
‫‬قُلْتُ: اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَعْلَمُ. 
[قَالَ: فَإِنَّهُ جِبْرِيلُ أَتَاكُمْ يُعَلِّمُكُمْ دِينَكُمْ ".   [رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ]


On the authority of ʿUmar, raḍīyallahu ʿʿʿanhu, who said:

"While we were one day sitting with the Messenger of Allāh, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, there appeared before us a man dressed in extremely white clothes and with very black hair. No traces of journeying were visible on him, and none of us knew him. He sat down close by the Prophet, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, rested his knee against his thighs, and said, O Muḥammad! Inform me about Islām." Said the Messenger of Allāh, ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wa-sallam, "Islām is that you should testify that there is no deity except Allāh and that Muḥammad is His Messenger, that you should perform ṣalāh (ritual prayer), pay the Zakāh, fast during Ramaḍān, and perform Ḥajj (pilgrimage) to the House (the Kaʿbah at Makkah), if you can find a way to it (or find the means for making the journey to it)." Said he (the man), "You have spoken truly." We were astonished at his thus questioning him and telling him that he was right, but he went on to say, "Inform me about iman (faith)." He (the Messenger of Allāh) answered, "It is that you believe in Allāh and His angels and His Books and His Messengers and in the Last Day, and in fate (qadar), both in its good and in its evil aspects." He said, "You have spoken truly." Then he (the man) said, "Inform me about Ihsan." He (the Messenger of Allāh) answered, " It is that you should serve Allāh as though you could see Him, for though you cannot see Him yet He sees you." He said, "Inform me about the Hour." He (the Messenger of Allāh) said, "About that the one questioned knows no more than the questioner." So he said, "Well, inform me about the signs thereof (i.e. of its coming)." Said he, "They are that the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress, that you will see the barefooted ones, the naked, the destitute, the herdsmen of the sheep (competing with each other) in raising lofty buildings." Thereupon the man went off. I waited a while, and then he (the Messenger of Allāh) said, "O ʿUmar, do you know who that questioner was?" I replied, "Allāh and His Messenger know better." He said, "That was Jibrīl. He came to teach you your religion." [Muslim] 
 

April2014 knowledgeisdīn

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