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The Types of Injustices (Ẓulm) and the Stance of the Slave with Respect to It

  Shaykh Ṣāliḥ ibn Fawzān al-Fawzān

A short article excerpted from the works of the illustrious scholar and member of The Permanent Committee for Islamic Research and Fatāwá (اللجنة الدائمة للبحوث العلمية والإفتاء). Shaykh Ṣālīḥ al-Fawzān overviews the three types of Ẓulm (oppression/injustices).

bismallah

  Injustice in the [al-ʿArabīc] Language is: placing something in other than its place.
Dr. Ṣaliḥ ibn Fawzān al-Fawzān, al-Minḥah al-Rabbāniyyah  pg. 207-208


Shaykh Ṣāliḥ al-Fawzān (حفظه الله) said1

Injustice in the [al-ʿArabīc] Language is: placing something in other than its place, and it is of three types:

The first type: Injustice between the slave and his Lord. That occurs by committing shirk. Allāh does not forgive this. He said:

إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ
“Verily! Joining others in worship with Allah is a great Ẓulm [wrong] indeed.”
[Sūrah Lūqmān, 31:13]

He (also) said:

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُوا إِيمَانَهُم بِظُلْمٍ
“It is those who believe [in the Oneness of Allah and worship none but Him Alone] and confuse not their belief with Ẓulm”
[Sūrah al-Anʿām, 6:82]

meaning shirk. Allāh will not forgive this except with tawbah (repentance).

He said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَى إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا 
“Verily, Allāh forgives not that partners should be set up with Him in worship, but He forgives other than that to whom He pleases.” 
[Sūrah al-Nisāʾ, 4:48]


The second type: Injustice between the slave and himself. That occurs by committing sins and doing evil. Therefore, he is the one who oppressed himself. Meaning, he placed himself in a place that is not befitting to be placed. He oppressed himself by [committing] other than shirk and Allāh forgives this to whom he pleases.

He said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَى إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا 
“Verily, Allāh forgives not that partners should be set up with Him in worship, but He forgives other than that to whom He pleases.” 
[Sūrah al-Nisāʾ, 4:48]


The third type: Injustice between an individual and people by transgressing against them as it relates to their money, their honour and their blood. Allāh does not forgive this except if the oppressed gives permission/authorisation, otherwise recompense must [be given] to the oppressed by the oppressor since a humans’ right is not discharged except by his forgiveness or his recompensation.2


Endnotes: 

[1]: al-Minḥah al-Rabbāniyyah  pg. 207-208

[2]: Translator's note: The categorisation of injustice and oppression into the three categories mentioned above was explicitly mentioned in a Ḥadith reported by Abū Dāwūd al-Tayalīsī and al-Bazzār which Shaykh al-Albānī authenticated in al-Silsilah Aḥādith al-Ṣaḥīḥah vol. 4, pg. 560.

The Prophet (ﷺ) said:
There are three [types of] injustice. Injustice [which] Allāh does not overlook, injustice that is forgiven and injustice that is not forgiven. As for the injustice that is not forgiven, then it is shirk. Allāh does not forgive it. As for the injustice that is forgiven, then it is the injustice of the slave between himself and his Lord. As for the injustice that is not overlooked, then it is the injustice [which occurs between] the slaves. Thus, Allāh recompenses each of them.      

Translated by: Musa Shaleem Mohammed

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