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An Explanation of the Opening Invocations of Ṣalāh

Imām Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn

The wisdom behind what is mentioned in two selected opening invocations of ṣalah, and some rulings regarding them.

After stating the takbīr and raising the hands to begin the ṣalāh, a person should say the opening invocation:

سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ

Glory and praise be to You O Allāh

وَتَبَارَكَ اسْمُكَ

Blessed be thy name,

وَتَعَالَى جَدُّكَ

Your greatness is raised

وَلَا إِلَهَ غَيْرُكَ

And there is nothing worship in truth besides You

The Interpretation of ‘Glory and Praise Be to You O Allāh’ (سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ)

This statement consists of both the negation of that which is unbefitting to Allāh, while also consisting of an affirmation. The negation aspect is in the statement: ‘Glory be to You’ (i.e. alone) and the affirmation is inherent in ‘and praise’. This is because ‘praise’ refers to describing the praiseworthy one with attributes of perfection accompanied by love and acknowledgement of their greatness. As for the negation, it is in the statement ‘glory be to you’ because its meaning is ‘I negate all forms of deficiency from You O my Lord’. The (negation of) deficiency being referred to here may be in His attributes or the claim of resemblance to His creation. The attributes that are used to describe Him are all completely devoid of deficiency. For example, He is described with: perfect knowledge, perfect life, perfect hearing, perfect sight, and so on. Additionally, He is above being associated with inherently deficient attributes like lacking ability, oppression, or the likeness of such attributes.

He is also above having resemblance to His creation, even if the attribute in question represents completeness when applied to the creation1. His attributes are incomparable with the physical attributes of his creation like the attributes of their face, hands, and feet. He is also above being described with non-physical attributes that resemble His creation. For example, His knowledge is unlike that of the creation as any knowledge possessed by the creation is deficient. Deficient in relation to its very inception due to it being preceded by ignorance. Deficient in terms of its ultimate end because it is subjected to forgetfulness. While also being deficient in terms of comprehensiveness, not fully encompassing any particular subject. The creation’s knowledge is so deficient that they lack the ability to fully comprehend the reality of their own spirits, despite its continuous existence within themselves. As the Most High said:

وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الرُّوحِ ۖ قُلِ الرُّوحُ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّي وَمَا أُوتِيتُم مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

“And they ask you (O Muḥammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم)) concerning the Rūḥ (the Spirit); Say: “The Rūḥ (the Spirit): it is one of the things, the knowledge of which is only with my Lord. And of knowledge, you (mankind) have been given only a little.”
(Al-Isrāʾ, 17:85)

A person’s knowledge is deficient regarding even his own day-to-day tasks that he intends to engage in. He remains unsure of its occurrences, although he may hope and anticipate his benefit from it. In reality, no person knows what he will earn tomorrow.2 Thus, the knowledge possessed by the creation is severely deficient while Allāh’s knowledge is complete and perfect.

Allāh also does not resemble His creation in the actions that are attributable to Him. For example, His rising over His throne, or descending to the lowest heaven, His coming on the Day of Judgement to settle the affairs of His servants, His pleasure and anger, or the likeness of such attributes. Even if the word used is the same in reference to the creation. The same word is used for both, but the One being referred to by that word is unlike the creation. Similarly, the terms used for the attributes are the same in both, but the One being described is different to His creation. There is, therefore, no similarity between the Creator and His creation.

In summary, ascribing attributes to Allāh must consist of the negation of three matters:

  1. Deficiency in attributes of perfection.
  2. Attributes that are inherently deficient which do not pertain to perfection in any way.
  3. Resemblance to the creation which is a form of deficiency. This is because that which is perfect is made to be deficient by likening it to that which is inherently deficient. In this vein, the poet said: “Do you not surmise that a sword’s power is made insignificant if it is said to be sharper than a stick?” That is, if I was to say: “I have a magnificent sword” and I begin praising it but then I say: “Its sharper even than a stick”, its magnificence would have declined greatly. It is likely that you would not surmise this sword to have any significance at all. This is because you have negated its similarity to a stick. Any person who can conceptualise a sword holding any similarity to a stick will immediately regard the sword as undoubtedly deficient.

As for ‘praise’, it is to describe the praiseworthy one with attributes of perfection. This perfection applies to His essence and His actions. Allāh is perfect in relation to His essence which stipulates the perfection of His attributes. Similarly, His actions are all completely perfect and emanate either from justice or showing goodness to the creation. There can be no oppression in any of His actions. Rather, he either treats His servants with justice and equity, or with goodness. As for the sinners among them, they are subject to His justice as the Most High said:

وَجَزَاءُ سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِّثْلُهَا

“The recompense for an evil is an evil like thereof.”
(Al-Shūrá, 42:40)

That is, the evil is not more than what has been perpetrated. While the good-doers are the subject of His blessings and bounties as the Most High said:

مَن جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا

”Whoever brings a good deed (Islamic Monotheism and deeds of obedience to Allāh and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم)) shall have ten times the like thereof to his credit.”
(Al-Anʿām, 6:160)

Thus, all His actions occur in relation to these two matters: justice and goodness. The one whose actions are as described is undoubtedly deserving of praise for those actions. Just as He is deserving of praise for His attributes.

In this way, this statement has combined between the elimination of deficiency and acknowledgement of perfection. In consideration of this, the ‘and’ in the statement ‘Glory and praise be to You’ is meant to signify the accompaniment of one with the other. It is like saying: I eliminate from You deficiencies in all their forms while additionally praising You (alone).

The Interpretation of ‘Blessed Be Thy name’ (وَتَبَارَكَ اسْمُكَ)

‘Name’ here is singular and is contextually mentioned in attachment to Allāh. Grammatically, it is comprehensive of all of Allāh’s names despite the word ‘name’ taking a singular form.

[Q]: Is the word ‘name’ referring only to the One being named [that is, Allāh] like in the ḥadīth “Blessed are You, the Owner of Majesty and Honour”3. In which case, the meaning of ‘blessed be thy name’ is ‘blessed are You’. This is also similar to His saying:

سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الْأَعْلَى

“Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High.”
(Al-Aʿlá, 87:1)

Here also, the One being glorified is the Owner of the Name [and not the name itself]. Or is the meaning of this statement that the names of Allāh themselves are blessed such that if the names themselves may be ascribed to blessings, then the One being named must be even greater and more attributable to those blessings?

[A]: The latter is more apparent. This is because, in adoption of this opinion, it renders us safe from disregarding the importance of the names of the One being named [Allāh]. Also, because this opinion stipulates blessings being attributable to the One being named anyways [as in the first opinion].

As for examples of the blessings associated with name of Allāh, this includes:

If, when slaughtering an animal, you were to do so without mentioning the name of Allāh it would be considered dead carrion, impure, and impermissible for consumption. However, if you were to mention the name of Allāh upon it, it would be considered a permissible slaughter, wrought with goodness, and permissible for consumption. Likewise, if you begin eating by saying “In the name of Allāh”, Shayṭān does not partake in your meal with you. If you do not mention the name of Allāh before you start your meal, he eats with you.4

Also, if you begin performing wuḍūʾ by mentioning the name of Allāh—according to the opinion that mentioning the name of Allāh is obligatory when performing wuḍūʾ—your wuḍūʾ is considered valid. Otherwise, your wuḍūʾ is considered invalid. Even according to those who consider it recommended, mentioning the name of Allāh before starting wuḍūʾ is considered a more exemplary manner of performing it that not mentioning it at all.5 This represents the blessings that are attributable to the name of Allāh—the Exalted in Might.

The Interpretation of ‘Your Greatness is Raised’ (وَتَعَالَى جَدُّك)

‘Raised’; that is, in a metaphorical sense [in the context of greatness]. The meaning of this statement is: Your greatness is itself great, lofty and high, unparalleled by any greatness attributable to a human being or any other created being.

The Interpretation of ‘And There is Nothing Worshipped in Truth Besides You’ (وَلَا إِلَهَ غَيْرُك)

This is the statement of tawhīd with which all the messengers were sent. The Most High said:

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ

“And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muḥammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم)) but We inspired him (saying): Lā ilāha illā Ana [none has the right to be worshipped but I (Allāh)], so worship Me (Alone and none else).”
(Al-Anbiyāʾ, 21:25)

Also, as the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “The one whose last statement in this dunyá is ‘Lā ilāha illā Allāh’ (there is nothing worshipped in truth besides Allāh) will enter Paradise”6 This statement, therefore, is among the greatest forms of dhikr (remembrance).

[Q]: If there is nothing worshipped in truth besides Allāh, then are there other deities that are worshipped falsely?

[A]: Yes, there are deities that are worshipped in falsehood. This includes everything that is worshipped besides Allāh. As the Most High said:

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ

“That is because Allāh He is the Truth (the only True God of all that exists, Who has no partners or rivals with Him), and what they (the polytheists) invoke besides Him, it is bāṭil (falsehood)”
(Al-Ḥajj, 22:62)

These other deities that are worshipped are referred to as gods, although they are nought but names. There is no reality or truth in their worship. Rather, they represent manifest falsehood, as the Most High said:

إِنْ هِيَ إِلَّا أَسْمَاءٌ سَمَّيْتُمُوهَا أَنتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُم مَّا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَانٍ

“They are but names which you have named, you and your fathers, for which Allāh has sent down no authority.”
(Al-Najm, 53:23)

This statement has stipulations. This includes complete submission to Allāh—the Exalted in Might. This is because true worship is fundamentally built upon humility. Thus, this great statement stipulates complete submission to Allāh both outwardly and inwardly. The one who says it must relate it upon his tongue, while firmly believing it in his heart that there is nothing worshipped in truth except for Allāh, and that anything worshipped besides Him is false.

Then, contemplate the manner in which this statement which pertains to Allāh’s right to be worshipped is made after praising Allāh such that the declaration of His right to be worshipped is based on recognition of His complete perfection. “Glory and praise be to You O Allāh, Blessed be thy name, Your greatness is raised” all represent praising Allāh’s perfection, then you say: “and there is nothing worshipped in truth besides You”. In this way, the preceding statements are like a reasoning that builds up to the statement that is made at the end of this invocation. It is like you are saying: because of the complete perfection of your attributes there could be nothing worshipped in truth besides You, and there is no true God other than You.

This is the particular opening invocation which ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb (رضي الله عنه) used to recite, as narrated by Muslim with a fragmented chain, that was then connected by al-Bayhaqī.7 ʿUmar (رضي الله عنه) is among the rightly guided khalīfahs whose example we were ordered to emulate.8 This invocation was also narrated directly from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).9

[Q]: Are there any other invocations that may be recited when beginning the ṣalāh?

[A]: Yes, there are many others. In fact, Shaykh al-Islām Ibn Taymiyyah has authored an entire treatise pertaining to the various opening invocations.10 Among those mentioned therein is the invocation that was narrated in al-Ṣaḥīḥayn (al-Bukhārī and Muslim), on the authority of Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه), who said: “When the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) would say the takbīr of ṣalāh, he would remain silent for some time. So, I said: “ I would offer my own mother and father for your safety O Messenger of Allāh! Regarding your silence between the takbīr and recitation, what do you say?” He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) replied: “ I say:

اللَّهُمَّ بَاعِدْ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ خَطَايَايَ كَمَا بَاعَدْتَ بَيْنَ المَشْرِقِ وَالمَغْرِب، اللَّهُمَّ نَقِّنِي مِنْ خَطَايَايَ كَمَا يُنَقَّ الثَّوْبُ الأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الدَّنَس، اللَّهُمَّ اغْسِلْنِي مِنْ خَطَايَايَ بِالْمَاءِ وَالثَّلْجِ وَالبَرَد

O Allāh! Distance me from my misdeeds as You have distanced the east from the west. O Allāh! Purify me from my misdeeds as You have purified a white garment from dirt. O Allāh! Wash me of my sins with water, ice, and frost.”

This invocation is more authentic than the aforementioned opening invocation that begins “سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك”. Although the recitation of either invocation is permissible and considered Sunnah. It is most appropriate that a person opens his ṣalāh with this invocation sometimes, and uses the other one at other times, such that he enacts all of the Sunnah, giving life to all of it through his actions. Also, because this acts to facilitate a more present heart when praying. As any act that is persistently practised will eventually become habitual. To the extent that a person may begin his prayer mindlessly by saying the takbīr, then immediately start reciting “سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك’ unintentionally merely out of force of habit.

The Explanation of the Invocation Mentioned in the Ḥadīth of Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه)

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) testified as to Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه)’s great thirst for knowledge. As narrated, he (رضي الله عنه) once asked: “O Messenger of Allāh! Who will be the happiest of mankind by receiving your intercession on the Day of Judgement?” He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) replied: “I thought—O Abū Hurayrah—that no one would precede you in asking me concerning this due to the great aspiration you possess for narration from me.” Then, he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “The happiest of mankind who shall receive by intercession on the Day of Judgement are those who say: ‘There is nothing worshipped in truth besides Allāh’ sincerely from their heart”.11

In this ḥadīth, when he (رضي الله عنه) recognised that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) had remained silent for a period between the takbīr and recitation, he knew that he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was saying something as complete silence is non-existent whilst a person is praying. Thus, he (رضي الله عنه) said: “Regarding your silence between the takbīr and recitation, what do you say?” His statement: “What do you say?” proves the belief he held that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was definitely saying something during that period. As he did not say: “Are you silent during that time?”

He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “I say: O Allāh! Distance me from my misdeeds as You have distanced the east from the west.” Its meaning: He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has invoked Allāh to distance himself from his sins as He has distanced the east from the west. The distance between the east and the west represents the most exaggerated way of distancing between two things. For, if a person wishes to exaggerate the extent to which two things are distant from one another, he may express this by likening it to the distance between the heavens and the earth, or the distance between the east and the west. As for the meaning of “distance me from my misdeeds”, that is, between my perpetration of them such that I abandon them altogether while also distancing me from their associated punishment.

As for his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying: “O Allāh! Purify me from my misdeeds as You have purified a white garment from dirt”, this sentence refers to the sins that have already been perpetrated as he has said here: “Purify me from my misdeeds”. Then, his saying: “As You have purified a white garment from dirt”; that is, in the same way a white garment that is marred by filth is washed from it such that it returns to its previous white state. The colour white is specifically mentioned here because the effects of dirt are more recognisable in association with it. This is contrary to black-coloured garments. For this reason, during the days of winter a black thawb can remain unwashed for a month or more. In contrast, a white thawb will show stains within a week. Thus, he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “as You have purified a white garment from dirt” which clearly applies to the sins that have already been committed from which purity is being sought. Then, after purity is attained, he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: O Allāh! Wash me of my sins with water, ice, and frost.”

In summary, the first statement made in this invocation pertains to seeking distance from engaging in sin such that one abandons it. But, if I then still perpetrate it, then purify me of it [as in the second part]. Then, finally, remove its effects from me such that an even greater degree of purity is attained using water, ice and frost [as in the third part]. Here, purification may undoubtedly be attained with water. The addition of ice and frost here is most appropriate due to sins being punishable by fire which is severe in heat. That which is hot may be purified by quenching and cooling with that which is cold. Purification is accomplished with water, and cooling accomplished with ice and frost.This is the meaning of the ḥadīth narrated by Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه).

[Q]: Do sins [as in this ḥadīth] apply to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) himself?

[A]: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, as in this ḥadīth: “O Allāh! Wash me of my sins” attributing sins to himself (صلى الله عليه وسلم). He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) also used to say:

اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي ذَنْبِي كُلَّه، دِقَّهُ وَجِلَّه، وَأَوَّلَهُ وَآخِرَه، وَعَلَانِيَتُهُ وَسِرَّه

“O Allāh! Forgive me all of my sins, the small and the great of them, the first and the last of them, those done in public and in private.”12

Allāh—the Most High—said:

وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ

“And ask forgiveness for your sin, and also for (the sin of) believing men and believing women.”
(Muḥammad, 47:19)

The crux of this issue is: Do the sins being referred to here remain or not? The answer is: No, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is protected from perpetually and continually committing the same error. Also, any mistakes he makes are all forgiven which is contrary to anyone other than him. As, indeed, those besides him make mistakes, persist in error, and may not attain forgiveness. As for the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), his attention is brought to all of his errors, whatever they may be:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ لِمَ تُحَرِّمُ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكَ ۖ تَبْتَغِي مَرْضَاتَ أَزْوَاجِكَ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ‎

“O Prophet! Why do you ban (for yourself) that which Allāh has made lawful to you, seeking to please your wives? And Allāh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”
(Al-Taḥrīm, 66:1)

This is the truth that concludes any debate in this matter that has occurred among the people. There are also sins which the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is undoubtedly protected from ever engaging in which includes lying and betrayal. This is because to allege that such sins could plausibly emanate from him (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is akin to criticising his message. As such, those misdeeds may never be associated with him (صلى الله عليه وسلم). He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is also completely protected from engaging in any act that represents a violation of the foundations of worship or exemplary conduct. This includes, for example, committing shirk or engaging in lowly, contemptible acts such as fornication. As for the mistakes that remain between him and his Lord, they have occurred. Although they are all minor, and have been expiated. For Allāh has forgiven all his sins, both past and present.13

I have made this statement in consideration of some of the scholars interpreting the aforementioned ḥadīths saying: Any narration in which the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has described himself with sin may be interpreted to mean the sin of his ummah and not his own sin. This is because he does not sin. There can be no doubt that there is weakness in this interpretation. As Allāh said: “And ask forgiveness for your sin, and also for (the sin of) believing men”, here, contextually mentioning two entities in the same sentence stipulates differentiation between them. Also, attributing minor sins to him does not represent a form of criticism towards the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) because he does not continue in error. Those errors are also forgiven.

Also, how many of us have improved our behaviour markedly following the perpetration of sin in comparison to our prior states? Frequently, a person errs and falls into sin. After which he finds within his heart a sense of dejection and sadness before Allāh—the Exalted in Might—such that he seeks forgiveness from Him, sincerely repenting for his actions. To the extent that his sin remains before his eyes, continually regretting his perpetration of it and perpetually seeking forgiveness because of it. Conversely, a person may see himself as obedient, from among the people of piety and righteousness. As a result, he starts to conduct himself with a sense of delusional self-amazement, never seeking forgiveness from Allāh. Such behaviour ultimately leads to the complete corruption of one’s religion. Allāh—the Exalted in Might—is the Most Wise, and He may choose to test His servants with the perpetration of sin such that their circumstance is improved. Just as a person may be tested with hunger such that his health and wellbeing may be improved. Was Ādam (عليه السلام) not chosen by Allāh only after he had engaged in sin and subsequently repented from it? As He said:

ثُمَّ اجْتَبَاهُ رَبُّهُ

“Then his Lord chose him”
(Ṭā-Hā, 20:122)

That is, after he had sinned and repented, his Lord chose him, accepting his repentance and guiding him. Contemplate also the companions that remained behind and did not join the expedition of Tabūk. What happened to them? They undoubtedly achieved īmān, an elevated station and an honourable standing that was superior to their previous conditions. Would it have been possible for verses of the Qurʾān to be revealed concerning them—which will be recited until the Day of Judgement—without this sin and their subsequent repentance from it?14

Importantly, no human being is completely free from error. As for the prophets (عليهم السلام), they are protected from falling into the types of errors we have mentioned, and are also protected from continually perpetrating minor errors. Rather, they will have undoubtedly sought repentance for them.

[Q]: Should we combine more than one of the various opening invocations [in a single ṣalāh]?

[A]: Do not combine between more than one as the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) answered Abū Hurayrah, as in the ḥadīth, by mentioning a single invocation. He did not, for example, also mention the other aforementioned invocation “سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ.” This proves that one should not combine more than one invocation [in the same ṣalāh].

We have mentioned only two opening invocations here but there are others. Among them are those that are specifically recited in the night prayer for example. So review these other invocations by returning to those more comprehensive books in this matter.

[Q]: Should one recite an opening invocation when praying the funeral prayers [janāzah]?

[A]: There is a difference of opinion in this issue. Some scholars say: One should recite the opening invocation when praying it because it is considered a ṣalāh and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to recite an opening invocation when praying ṣalāh. While the most well-known opinion of the Ḥanbalī madh`hab is that an opening invocation should not be recited when praying it. This is because it is a ṣalāh that is performed in a brief manner as it does not consist of rukūʿ, sujūd or tashahhud all of which indicate that Allāh has prescribed its performance in a brief or shortened manner. This opinion is closer to the truth.

Endnotes:
[1] Translator note: Referring to sleeping, eating, drinking, marrying, having progeny for example, all of which are considered attributes of completeness in the creation but represent deficiency if applied to Allāh. Shaykh Ibn ʿUthaymīn explained: “If a person was to say: A person having the ability to sleep represents a form of perfection in him. As, if he lacked the ability to fall asleep, he would be considered sick.’ We say: The same can be said regarding eating. If a person cannot ingest food, he would be considered sick. These attributes represent perfection in one way, but deficiency in another. They represent perfection in that they represent the healthy, conditioned state of one’s body. They also represent deficiency because the body requires these things. Thus, in actuality it represents an inherent deficiency. So, not everything that represents a form of perfection as applied to created beings also represents perfection in the Creator. Just as not every aspect of perfection in the Creator is considered perfection when applied to the creation. For example, pride is an attribute of perfection for the Creator but represents a deficiency if manifest in a created being. Likewise, eating, drinking, and sleeping represent perfection in the creation, but deficiency if applied to the Creator. For this reason, Allāh says regarding Himself:

وَهُوَ يُطْعِمُ وَلَا يُطْعَمُ

“He Who feeds but is not fed.”
(Al-Anʿām, 6:14)

Source: Majmūʿ Fatāwá 8:136
[2] Referencing the verse in Sūrah Luqmān, 31:34:

وَمَا تَدْرِي نَفْسٌ مَّاذَا تَكْسِبُ غَدًا ۖ وَمَا تَدْرِي نَفْسٌ بِأَيِّ أَرْضٍ تَمُوتُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ

“No person knows what he will earn tomorrow, and no person knows in what land he will die. Verily, Allāh is All-Knower, All-Aware (of things).”

[3] Authentic: narrated by Muslim: 592.
[4] Authentic: narrated by Muslim: 2017.
[5] See: The Ruling on Evoking the Name of Allāh Before Acts of Worship by Imām Muḥammad ibn Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn.
[6] Authentic: narrated by Abū Dāwūd: 3116 and graded authentic by Shaykh al-Albānī. See Sunan Abī Dāwūd edited by Muḥī al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd.
[7] Authentic: narrated by Muslim: 399 and al-Bayhaqī 2:34.
[8] Authentic: narrated by Abū Dāwūd: 4607 and graded authentic by Shaykh al-Albānī in Irwāʾ 8:107.
[9] Authentic: narrated by Abū Dāwūd and graded authentic by Shaykh al-Albānī. See Sunan Abī Dāwūd edited by Muḥī al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd.
[10] Published as part of Majmūʿ al-Fatāwá 22:376-403.
[11] Authentic: narrated by al-Bukhāri: 6570.
[12] Authentic: narrated by Muslim: 483.
[13] Referencing the authentic ḥadīth narrated by al-Bukharī: 4836 and Muslim: 2819.
[14] Referring to the verse in Sūrah al-Tawbah, 9:118:

وَعَلَى الثَّلَاثَةِ الَّذِينَ خُلِّفُوا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا ضَاقَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ أَنفُسُهُمْ وَظَنُّوا أَن لَّا مَلْجَأَ مِنَ اللَّهِ إِلَّا إِلَيْهِ ثُمَّ تَابَ عَلَيْهِمْ لِيَتُوبُوا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

“And (He did forgive also) the three [who did not join the Tabūk expedition (whom the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم)] left (i.e. he did not give his judgement in their case, and their case was suspended for Allāh’s Decision) till for them the earth, vast as it is, was straitened and their ownselves were straitened to them, and they perceived that there is no fleeing from Allāh, and no refuge but with Him. Then, He accepted their repentance, that they might repent (unto Him). Verily, Allāh is the One Who accepts repentance, Most Merciful.”

Source: Al-Sharh al-Mumtiʿ 3:42-53
Translated by: Riyāḍ al-Kanadī

Published: March 15, 2024
Edited: March 19, 2024

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