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Jan 3, 2024
Ṣalāh that is performed after its appointed time should be performed in the same manner as if it was performed at its proper time. This is because the performance of any act of worship after its appointed time should mirror performance at its appointed time. This is a well-known judicial rule. In consideration of this, if one was to perform a night prayer in the daytime, he would recite aloud as if he was praying in the night. Likewise, if he was to perform a daytime prayer in the night, he should recite quietly. The evidence for this is the following: The saying of the Messenger (صلى ا…

Jan 3, 2024
The Most High said: وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَعْمَالُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍ بِقِيعَةٍ يَحْسَبُهُ الظَّمْآنُ مَاءً حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَهُ لَمْ يَجِدْهُ شَيْئًا وَوَجَدَ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ فَوَفَّاهُ حِسَابَهُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ﴿٣٩﴾ أَوْ كَظُلُمَاتٍ فِي بَحْرٍ لُّجِّيٍّ يَغْشَاهُ مَوْجٌ مِّن فَوْقِهِ مَوْجٌ مِّن فَوْقِهِ سَحَابٌ ۚ ظُلُمَاتٌ بَعْضُهَا فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ إِذَا أَخْرَجَ يَدَهُ لَمْ يَكَدْ يَرَاهَا ۗ وَمَن لَّمْ يَجْعَلِ اللَّهُ لَهُ نُورًا فَمَا لَهُ مِن نُّورٍ ‎﴿٤٠﴾ “As for those who disbelieve, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one thinks it to be water, until he …

Jan 1, 2024
Joining between Ẓuhr and ʿAṣr, and between Maghrib and ʿIshāʾ, is legislated whenever there is difficulty and hardship in performing each prayer at its appointed time. Muslim narrates with an authentic chain on the authority of ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbbās (رضي الله عنهما) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) combined the performance of Ẓuhr and ʿAṣr, and Maghrib and ʿIshāʾ, in Madīnah, while not travelling, nor was it raining. They asked: “O Ibn ʿAbbās! What did he intend from this?” He replied: “Not to cause hardship on his ummah.” Shaykh Ibn ʿUthaymīn comments: “This points to the reason behin…

Jan 1, 2024
Wahb ibn Manubbih wrote to Makḥūl: “Indeed, you are a man who has attained an honourable standing and repute as a result of your Islamic knowledge that is apparent [to the people]. So seek, by means of your unapparent Islamic knowledge, to attain true love [for Allāh] and to gain closeness to Him.” In another narration, he wrote: “You have reached, by means of your apparent knowledge, a high standing and place of honour before them. So seek, by means of your unapparent knowledge, an honourable standing with Allāh and closeness to Him. And know that one standing may prevent your attainment o…

Jan 1, 2024
The Stance of the Ḥanbalī Madh`hab: Takbīrat al-Iḥrām Is the Parameter for the the Validity of a (Time Constrained) Prayer [Al-Ḥajjawī said]: “The time for any salāh is considered attained provided a person performs at least the takbīrah al-iḥrām [the first takbīr of the ṣalāh] of that ṣalāh within its appointed time.” His saying “ṣalāh” is general and refers to obligatory and supererogatory prayers that are subject to time constraints such as Ṣalāh al-Ḍuḥá and al-Witr. The performance of both of them are subject to specific times. Likewise for the set supererogatory prayers attached to t…

Jan 1, 2024
The prerequisites of the garments worn during prayer are the following: The garment must not show the characteristics of the underlying skin. If those characteristics are visible, wearing that garment in prayer is impermissible because one is not deemed to be truly covering themselves. In consideration of this, if a person was to clothe himself in a garment made of clear plastic which prevents air and water from reaching his skin, it would be impermissible for him to pray in such clothing as he is not covered in actuality because his clothing clearly shows the characteristics of his unde…

Jan 1, 2024
The Opinion of the Ḥanbalī Madh`hab As for the one who prays in clothing that is ḥarām, his ṣalāh should be deemed incorrect. The reason for this is that permissibility is among the prerequisites of the clothing one uses to cover himself. So, if a person prays in clothing that is ḥarām—whether this be due to the way in which it was procured, its material, or attributes, or the specific money used in its purchase—his ṣalāh is deemed incorrect. Types of Ḥarām Clothing An example of clothing that is ḥarām due to the way in which it was procured includes that which is taken by unlawful seizure,…

Dec 30, 2023
The Meaning of Najs Clothing The person who prays in najs clothing must repeat his ṣalāh. The meaning of ‘najs clothing’ is either clothing that is najs due to the material from which it was derived like clothing made from the skin of a predacious animal or clothing that has been marred by an amount of najāsah which may not be overlooked. If marred by a very small amount of najāsah which may be overlooked, then it is permissible to pray while wearing such clothing. For example, a small amount of blood that is poured forth from slaughter. The evidence for the obligatory nature of repeating …