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Ramaḍān Offers Us an Opportunity to Strengthen Our Social Bonds

Dr. Abū Wāʾil Musa Shaleem

Discussing the wisdom of Ramaḍān and its strengthening of bonds through acts of legislated charity and sociality such as saḥūr, tarāwīḥ, distributing fiṭr, and the ʿĪd activities.

People are inherently social creatures, as several Islamic texts suggest, for Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “The believers are like bricks of a wall reinforcing each other.”1 This Ḥadīth states that although the Muslim Ummah comprises numerous individuals, these individuals form a tightly knit network of people who rely on each other to achieve specific objectives. Each brick represents a member of the Muslim community who has his individual needs. The solid brick wall represents the entire Muslim Ummah. Islām, the pure Islamic creed, and the Muslims’ need for each other represent the cement, which is arguably the most important part of any structure since it ensures its stability, that binds each brick together to form a coherent rigid structure. This simile vividly depicts our need for each other which establishes the need for us to socialise.

Al-Rāgib Al-Aṣfahānī [d. 502 AH] (رحمه الله) further explains:

When achieving the smallest thing is difficult for a person without some cooperation—if we consider the number of steps we must take to acquire a morsel of food, from planting the crops, grinding the flour, making the bread, and fabricating the equipment to manufacture the food, it would be tedious to count—it was said that people are inherently social. They cannot live alone; rather, they need each other to acquire the necessities of this world, and this Ḥadīth highlights this.2

Many other scholars held this view. For instance, Ibn Taymiyyah [d. 728 AH] (رحمه الله) said: “People are inherently social. They can only live with other people.”3

Ibn Al-Qayyim [d. 751 AH] (رحمه الله) supported this view saying on one occasion: “People are inherently social, so they must live with other people.”4

Consequently, Islām encouraged socialising which involves hosting and attending lawful social events, for Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “The believer who mixes with the people and endures their harm is better than the person who avoids the people and does not endure their harm.”5 As for unlawful social events—like birthdays, anniversaries, the Mawlid, and Christmas—then hosting them or attending them is prohibited. Anas ibn Mālik (رضي الله عنه) narrated:

When Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) came to Madīnah, the people had two days in which they played games. He asked: “What is (the significance of) these two days?” They said: “We would enjoy ourselves on those two days in the pre-Islamic period. Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “Allāh has substituted them for something better: the day of al-Aḍḥá and the day of al-Fiṭr.”6

Also, by encouraging the building and strengthening of all types of legal social bonds, Islām further encouraged socialising. For example, Islām promoted the building and the strengthening of many bonds and ties.

Bonds and Ties

  1. 1. Parental Bonds

    ʿAbdullāh ibn Masʿūd (رضي الله عنه) relayed: “I asked the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم): ‘Which deed does Allāh love the most?’ Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: ‘The prayer at its appointed time.’ I asked: ‘What next?’ He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) replied: ‘Kindness to parents.’”7

    In fact, a Muslim is still required to live amicably with his non-Muslim parents, as Allāh said relaying Luqmān’s advice to his son:

    وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ عَلَىٰ أَن تُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا ۖ وَصَاحِبْهُمَا فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفًا ۖ

    “If they pressure you to associate a partner with Me that you do not know if it is an associate, do not obey them. However, live courteously with them in this world.”
    [Luqmān, 31:15]

  2. 2. Marital Bonds

    Allāh said to the husbands:

    وَعَاشِرُوهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ

    “Live cordially with them (i.e. your wives).”
    [Al-Nisāʾ, 4:19]

  3. 3. Family Ties

    ʾAyyūb Al-Anṣārī (رضي الله عنه) reported:

    A man said: “O Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم)! Inform me of a deed that will admit me into Paradise.” The people said: “What is the matter with him? What is the matter with him?” Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “He had something to ask.” The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said (to him): “You must worship Allāh alone, offer the prayers, pay Zakāt, and maintain the ties of kinship (to enter Paradise).”8

  4. 4. Community Ties

  5. Allāh said:

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ

“The believers are one brotherhood.”
[Al-Ḥujarāt, 49:10]

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “The believers in their mutual kindness, compassion, and sympathy are just like one body. When any limb aches, sleeplessness and fever cause the remainder of the body to ache.”9

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) also said: “Whoever believes in Allāh and the Last Day must treat his neighbour kindly.”10

Conversely, Islām prohibited any act that either fractures or weakens those bonds, for example:

    1. The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) forbade a Muslim form being undutiful to his parents. Abū Bakrah (رضي الله عنه) narrated: “Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: ‘Shall I not inform you of the gravest of sins?’ They said: ‘Yes, Allāh’s Messenger.’ He said: ‘Joining partners with Allāh and being undutiful to one’s parents are (the worst of sins).’”11
    2. Islām prohibited the severing of family ties, for the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “Whoever severs the ties of kinship will not enter Paradise.”12
    3. Islām forbade defaming another Muslim. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “Defaming a Muslim is a sin, and fighting him is kufr.”13
    4. Islām prohibited a Muslim from illegitimately boycotting another Muslim, for the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “It is unlawful for a Muslim to boycott his brother for more than three nights.”14
    5. A Muslim is prohibited from declining another Muslim’s invitation unless he has a legitimate excuse hindering him from fulfilling this obligation. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “A Muslim must fulfil five rights of another Muslim. (They are:) responding to (his) salām, visiting (him if he falls) sick, following (his) funeral procession, accepting (his) invitation, and responding to (his) sneeze.”15

Furthermore, Islām ordered Muslims to rectify their differences and to mend their broken relationships. Allāh said:

فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَأَصْلِحُوا ذَاتَ بَيْنِكُمْ

“Fear Allāh, and rectify your differences.”
[Al-Anfāl, 8:1]

In fact, brotherhood is so important in Islām that a mediator is allowed to distort the truth to mend a broken relationship. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “The person who fabricates a good statement or says good things trying to mend peoples’ relationships is not a liar.”16

Additionally, Islām legislated many laws to promote the building and the strengthening of each of those aforementioned relationships. However, detailing that in this discussion is inappropriate since it entails digressing from the intended topic. However, Islām also employed a plethora of different methods to encourage the nurturing and the strengthening of social bonds in Ramaḍān.

Social Activities, Charitable Acts and Reformation of the Muslims’ Conduct

Social Activities

Islām legislated various types of social activities in Ramaḍān to bring the Muslim community closer together, such as:

  1. 1. Communal Saḥūr

    Zayd ibn Thābit (رضي الله عنه) said: “We had saḥūr with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). He then stood to perform the prayer.”17

    In fact, the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) would invite the Companions to have saḥūr with him. ʿIrbāḍ ibn Sāriyah (رضي الله عنه) reported: “I heard Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) inviting people to have saḥūr [with him] in Ramaḍān. He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: ‘Come to the blessed morning meal/breakfast [i.e. saḥūr].’”18

    Tragically, communal saḥūr, even within the nuclear family, is an abandoned Prophetic tradition since each family member usually prefers to eat their saḥūr alone. For more information on this abandoned Prophetic tradition, see: Reviving a Forgotten Sunnah in Ramaḍān: Communal Saḥūr.19

  2. 2. The Communal Tarāwīḥ Prayer

    ʿĀʾishah, the mother of the believers, (رضي الله عنها) narrated:

    Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) prayed in the masjid one night, so the people followed him. He also prayed the following night, so more people prayed with him. Even more people gathered on the third or the fourth night, but he did not come out (from the house). He said in the morning: “I saw what you were doing; however, only the fear of the obligation of the prayer upon you stopped me from coming out.” That happened in Ramaḍān.20

    ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb (رضي الله عنه) eventually revived this Sunnah during his caliphate. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʿAbd al-Qārī (رضي الله عنه) reported:

    I accompanied ʿUmar ibn Al-Khaṭṭāb (رضي الله عنه) one night in Ramaḍān to the masjid and found the people praying in different groups. A man was praying alone, and a man leading a small group was also praying, so ʿUmar (رضي الله عنه) said: “I think if I gathered these people under the leadership of one reciter, that would be better. He made up his mind to gather them behind ʾUbay ibn Kaʿb (رضي الله عنه).21

  3. 3. The Communal ʿĪd Processions

    Both Muslim Men and Muslim woman must attend the ʿĪd processions since the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) also commanded the Muslim woman to attend these processions. Umm ʿAṭiyyah (رضي الله عنها) narrated:

    We were ordered to go out (for ʿĪd) and to take the menstruating women, mature girls, and virgins—who must stay in seclusion—along with us. The menstruating women could present themselves at the religious gathering and invocation but should keep away from the prayer area.22

  4. 4. Fraternising on ʿĪd Day

    Muslims are encouraged to visit each other, conversate, play games, have fun, exchange gifts, and eat together on ʿĪd day. ʿĀʾishah (رضي الله عنها) reported:

    Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) came to my house while two girls were singing the songs of Buath. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) lay down and turned his face to the other side. Abū Bakr then came and spoke to me harshly saying: “Musical instruments of Shayṭān near the Prophet?” Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) turned his face towards him saying: “Leave them.” When Abū Bakr became inattentive, I signalled to those girls to leave, so they left. It was ʿĪd day, and the (Abyssinians) were playing with shields and spears, so either I asked the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to see the display, or he asked me whether I would like to see it. I replied in the affirmative. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) then made me stand behind him whereupon my cheek was touching his cheek, and he was saying: “Carry on! O Banī Arfida,” until I became tired. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) asked me: “Are you satisfied?” I replied in the affirmative, so he told me to leave.23

    Also, ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb (رضي الله عنه) said: “Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) forbade fasting on these two days: the day of al-Fiṭr and the day of al-Aḍḥá. The day of al-Fiṭr is the day you break your fast, and you eat your sacrificial meat on the day of al-Aḍḥá.”24

    As a result, many Muslims either invite guests to their home or visit others on ʿĪd day.

These social activities, amongst other things, present an opportunity for an active member of the Muslim community to:

    • combat solitude
    • maintain and strengthen existing relationships
    • rekindle old friendships
    • mend broken relationships
    • make new friends
    • learn from each other
    • relax and have fun

These objectives help build community cohesion and help foster a harmonious society which is perhaps the final objective of socialising.

Charitable Acts

Islām encouraged Muslims to be even more charitable in the month of Ramaḍān which only further strengthens social bonds.

Ibn ʿAbbās (رضي الله عنه) relayed: “The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was the most generous person, and he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) became even more generous in Ramaḍān when Jibrīl would meet him (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Jibrīl would meet him every night during Ramaḍān to review the Qurʾān. Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was more generous than a swift wind.”25

Ibn Al-Qayyim [d. 751 AH] (رحمه الله) wrote: “The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was the most generous person, and he was most generous in Ramaḍān.”26

Consequently, the Salaf were more charitable in Ramaḍān. Ibn Rajab [d. 1795 AH] (رحمه الله) chronicled: “ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿUmar (رضي الله عنهما) would only break his fast with the poor, and if someone asked him for his food, he would give it to them, even though he was on the verge of breaking his fast. He would then return to his house only to find that his family consumed the last morsel of food that was left in the bowl. He would then awake fasting without consuming anything.”27

Al-Zuhrī [d. 123/124 AH] (رحمه الله) would say when Ramaḍān commenced: “It is the month to recite the Qurʾān and to feed others.”28

The Ḥadīth of Ibn ʿAbbās (رضي الله عنه) is general, so being charitable to both Muslims and non-Mulims in Ramaḍān is allowed. Performing any act of kindness in this month is also encouraged, even smiling, since the Ḥadīth is general. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “Smiling in your brother’s presence is charity.”29 Consequently, even the less fortunate Muslims can be charitable in Ramaḍān.

Islām also legislated the performance of several specific charitable acts in Ramaḍān, such as:

  1. 1. Providing Food, Including Ifṭār and Saḥūr, for Others

    ʿIrbāḍ ibn Sāriyah (رضي الله عنه) reported: “I heard Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) inviting people to have saḥūr [with him] in Ramaḍān. He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: ‘Come to the blessed morning meal/breakfast [i.e. saḥūr].’”30

    Also, the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “Whoever provides ifṭār for a fasting person will receive a similar reward without detracting from the fasting person’s reward in the slightest.”31

    Consequently, the Companions would compete to host each other in Ramaḍān. ʿAbdullāh ibn Rabāḥ (رضي الله عنه) narrated:

    A delegation comprising Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) embarked on a journey to meet Muʿāwiyah (رضي الله عنه) in Ramaḍān, so we would prepare food for one another, and Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) was among those who frequently invited us to his home, so I said (to myself): “I should prepare (food) for our friends and invite them to my home.” I ordered (someone) to prepare food. I met Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) in the afternoon, so I said: “I am inviting you tonight.” Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) said: “Have you preceded me (in inviting the others tonight)?” I responded: “Yes, I invited them, so they are my guests (tonight).” Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه) said: “Shall I not narrate a Ḥadīth to you from your Aḥādith, O assembly of the Anṣār, before the food arrives?” He then gave an account of the liberation of Makkah.32

    Look at the generosity of Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه)! Although he was one of the poorest Companions, he was amongst the most enthusiastic Companions to host guests. Note also how he used the time they were waiting for dinner to arrive to engage the others in a dialogue which perfectly illustrates the essence of socialising in Ramaḍān.

    The Salaf were equally enthusiastic to provide ifṭār for other fasting Muslims. Ibn Rajab (رحمه الله) documented:

    Many of the Salaf—like ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿUmar, Dāwūd Al-Ṭāʾī, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Sulaymān, Mālik ibn Dīnār, and Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal (رحمهم الله)—would give away their ifṭār, even though they were fasting, so they would awake (the next morning in a state of) fasting.

    (ʿAbdullāh) ibn ʿUmar (رضي الله عنهما) would only break his fast with the poor and the orphaned children. (Sometimes,) he suspected that his wife would prevent them from joining him, so he would not break his fast that evening.

    Others would always have a guest with them. Abū Al-Sawārī Al-ʿAdawī said: “Some men from the tribe of ʿAdī would pray in this masjid. Not one of them ever had ifṭār alone. If they found someone who would break fast with them, they would invite him to do so; otherwise, they would take their ifṭār to the masjid to eat with the people, so that people would eat with them.”33

    As a result, Ibn Taymiyyah (رحمه الله) declared providing food in Ramaḍān for other Muslims, especially poor fasting Muslims, an Islamic tradition. He said: “Providing food for poor people to aid them during the month of Ramaḍān is an Islamic practice since the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: ‘Whoever provides ifṭār for a fasting person will receive a similar reward without detracting from the fasting person’s reward in the slightest.’”34

  2. 2. Providing Zakāt al-Fiṭr for Poor Muslims

    The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) mandated giving Zakāt al-Fiṭr as it purifies the fasting person (who used) profanity and (engaged in) vain speech and provides food for the poor (Muslims).”35

    This act allows the less fortunate Muslims to enjoy themselves on ʿĪd day, as the more fortunate Muslims do, since the less fortunate Muslims will also have food to eat on that day.

    Shaykh Al-ʿUthaymīn [d. 1421 AH] (رحمه الله) explains:

    (Providing) Zakāt al-Fiṭr allows the poor Muslims to share in the joy that the wealthy Muslims enjoy on the day of ʿĪd since Islām is built on brotherhood and love, so it is a just religion. Allāh said:

    وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا ۚ وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنتُمْ أَعْدَاءً فَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُم بِنِعْمَتِهِ إِخْوَانًا وَكُنتُمْ عَلَىٰ شَفَا حُفْرَةٍ مِّنَ النَّارِ فَأَنقَذَكُم مِّنْهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

    Hold fast to the Rope of Allāh and be not divided. Remember Allāh’s favour. You were once enemies, but He joined your hearts together, so by His Grace, you became brothers (in Islamic Faith). You were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus, Allāh makes His signs clear to you so you may be guided.
    [Āl ʿImrān, 3:103]

    Also, our Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “The believers are like bricks of a wall reinforcing each other.”36

    This charitable act distinctly demonstrates how Ramaḍān can strengthen social bonds as both groups of the Islamic society are positively affected. The more fortunate Muslims are reminded of the favours they were granted and simultaneously become more aware of the condition of their less fortunate Muslims brothers. The less fortunate Muslims benefit from the food provided by their more fortunate Muslim brothers and develop a greater appreciation for them. This charitable act undeniably fosters sympathy for the less fortunate Muslims, generates love for one other, and cultivates a deeper sense of mutual appreciation.37

Reformation of the Muslims’ Conduct

Ramaḍān aims to reform the attitude and the conduct of the Muslims toward each other so they live together in harmony. This is well established in numerous Aḥādith. Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “Fasting is not merely abstaining from food and drink; it is abstaining from profanity and vain speech.”38

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) also said: “When you are fasting, you should not use obscene language nor should you raise your voice. Therefore, if someone reviles you or tries to quarrel with you, you should say: ‘I am a fasting person.’”39

Not only do these texts prove that a fasting Muslim is prohibited from using vile speech since this causes discord and division, but they also prove that a Muslim must exhibit forbearance and must refrain from reciprocating hostility, as this type of reaction only usually exacerbates the problem. These prohibitions clearly seek to prevent discord and conflict safeguarding the unity of the Muslim Ummah. Regardless of the month, these acts are prohibited; however, these Aḥādith specify that engaging in them in Ramaḍān is worse, which proves that Ramaḍān aims to reform the attitude and the conduct of the Muslims toward each other so they live together peacefully. Consequently, some of the Salaf would avoid the people during fasting hours to avoid conflict and sins and to maintain harmony.

Abū al-Mutawakkil (رحمه الله) said: “Abū Hurayrah and his associates (رضي الله عنهم) would sit in the masjid when they were fasting and say: ‘We are preserving our fast.’”40

Commencing and Terminating Ramaḍān Collectively

This is based on the local or the regional sightings of the moon, and several Aḥādīth unequivocally confirm that Muslims should commence and terminate their fast simultaneously. Consequently, everyone living in the same country or in the same region can celebrate ʿĪd on the same day, which only promotes unity and tightens the bonds of Islamic brotherhood since commencing and terminating the month of Ramaḍān and each fasting day collectively instils a sense of unity among the Muslims.

The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “Fasting commences when the people commence fasting, and fasting terminates when the people terminate their fasting.”41

Imām Al-Tirmidhī (d. 279 AH, رحمه الله) commented: “Some scholars explain this Ḥadīth saying: ‘This means that commencing and terminating the fast is collective.’”42

The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) also said: “Fasting terminates when the people terminate their fasting.”43

Therefore, Ramaḍān has the potential to strengthen Muslim communities through the different methods Islām employed to strengthen social bonds. However, we presently find the bonds of brotherhood severely fractured, and our Muslim communities are currently exceedingly disjointed, straying far from the correct ʿāqīdah, immersed in innovations, sins and political and cultural allegiances leading to the disintegration and to the degeneration of the Islamic society, to the extent that not even the blessed month of Ramaḍān can repair these fractured bonds and mend those disjointed communities. Shaykh Ṣāliḥ Al-Fawzān (حفظه الله) expounds:

The simultaneous commencing of the fast in Ramaḍān would not bring about the unification of the Muslims; rather, rectifying (our) creed will cause unification since differing in the commencement of the fast did not divide the Muslims; rather, their differing in creed and straying from the correct creed—which is taken from Allāh’s Book, His Messenger’s Sunnah, and what the (righteous) predecessor of this Ummah were upon—caused their division.44

However, Ramaḍān can at least strengthen the social bonds between the people of the truth, who share the same creed and ideology, once they observe it correctly. This is achievable if they:

  1. Perform the tarāwīḥ prayers in their own masājid
  2. Attend their own ʿĪd processions
  3. Periodically have communal Saḥūr
  4. Frequent provide ifṭār for each other
  5. Host dinner gatherings
  6. Only turn down an invitation for a valid Islamic reason
  7. Provide Zakāt al-Fiṭr to the less fortunate individuals amongst them
  8. Are more courteous to each other
  9. Set aside personal differences, bury grudges, and forgive each other
  10. Commence and terminate fasting in Ramaḍān collectively, especially if they reside in the same neighbourhood

Therefore, the people of the truth must capitalise on this priceless opportunity in Ramaḍān to strengthen their bonds of brotherhood in a time wherein all bonds are severely weakened.

Shaykh Rabīʿ ibn Hādī Al-Madkhalī (حفظه الله) elaborates: “I advise you to strengthen the bonds of brotherhood since these bonds have been severely weakened; in fact, Islamic brotherhood is quickly vanishing since most people now only form relationships to achieve a worldly purpose.”45

Although Ramaḍān may aim to straighten our social bonds, this is not its primary objective; rather, Ramaḍān’s primary objective is cultivating taqwá, as Allāh distinctly established saying:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

“O you who believe! Fasting was prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those who preceded you so you may attain taqwá.”
[Al-Baqarah 2:183]

I ask Allāh to make Ramaḍān an opportune time for the people of the truth to mend their weak and their broken bonds of brotherhood making them a tightly knit community, as they once were, as Allāh said:

وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنتُمْ أَعْدَاءً فَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُم بِنِعْمَتِهِ إِخْوَانًا

“Remember Allāh’s favour. You were once enemies, but He joined your hearts together, so by His Grace, you became brothers (in Islamic Faith).”
[Āl ʿImrān, 3:103]

Endnotes:

[1] Reported by Al-Bukhārī (481) and (2446) and (6026) and Muslim (2585).
[2] Fayḍ al-Qadīr, vol 6, pg. 252.
[3] Bayān Talbīis al-Jahmiyyah, vol. 2, pg. 55.
[4] Zād al-Maʿād, vol. 3, pg. 13.
[5] Reported by Ibn Mājah (1722) and others, and Shaykh Al-Albānī graded it authentic.
[6] Reported by Abū Dāwūd (1134) and al-Nasāʾī (1556). This is Abū Dāwūd’s wording, and Shaykh Al-Albānī graded it authentic.
[7] Reported by Al-Bukhārī (527) and (5970) with this exact wording.
[8] Reported by Al-Bukhārī (5983) with this exact wording.
[9] Reported by al-Bukhārī (6011) and Muslim (2586).
[10] Reported by al-Bukhārī (6019) and Muslim (47).
[11] Reported by Al-Bukhārī (6273) with this exact wording.
[12] Reported by Al-Bukhārī (5984) and Muslim (2556).
[13] Reported by al-Bukhārī ((48) and (6044) and (7076)) and Muslim (64).
[14] Reported by al-Bukhārī ((6073) and (6237)) and Muslim (2560).
[15] Reported by al-Bukhārī (1240) and Muslim (2162).
[16] Reported by al-Bukhārī (2692) and Muslim (2605).
[17] Reported by Al-Bukhārī (1921).
[18] Reported by Al-Nasāʾī (2163), and Shaykh Al-Albānī and Shaykh Muḥammad Ādam authenticated it.
[19] Although communal ifṭār is a common practice, the intention in this segment of the discussion is to only list the different types of social activities Islām itself legislated in the month of Ramaḍān to bring the Muslim community closer together. As a result, communal ifṭār was intentionally omitted as there is no mention of it in the Sunnah.
[20] Reported by al-Bukhārī (1129) and Muslim (761).
[21] Reported by Al-Bukhārī (2010).
[22] Reported by Al-Bukhārī (981).
[23] Reported by Al-Bukhārī (949).
[24] Reported by Abū Dāwūd (2416) and Ibn Mājah (1722), and Shaykh Al-Albānī graded it authentic.
[25] Reported by Al-Bukhārī (3554) with this exact wording.
[26] Zād al-Maʿād, vol. 2, pg. 30.
[27] Latāif al-Maʿārif, pg. 168.
[28] Latāif al-Maʿārif, pg. 171.
[29] Reported by Al-Tirmidhī (1956) and others, and Shaykh Al-Albānī authenticated it.
[30] Reported by Al-Nasāʾī (2163), and Shaykh Al-Albānī and Shaykh Muḥammad Ādam authenticated it.
[31] Reported by Al-Tirmidhī (807), Ibn Mājah (1746) and others, and Shaykh Al-Albānī authenticated it.
[32] Reported by Muslim (4740), Ibn Abī Shaybah in his Muṣannaf (36899), and Ibn Ḥibbān (1311) in his Ṣaḥīḥ, and Shaykh Al-Albānī authenticated the version found in Ibn Abī Shaybah’s Muṣannaf and Ibn Ḥibbān’s Ṣaḥīḥ, and this wording is that of Ibn Abī Shaybah.
[33] Ikhtiyār al-ʾAwlá, pg. 78.
[34] Majmūʿ al-Fatāwá, vol. 25 pg. 298.
[35] Reported by Ibn Mājah (1827), and Shaykh Al-Albānī authenticated it.
[36] Majmūʿ Fatāwá wā Rasāʾil al-ʿUthaymīn, vol. 18, pg. 272.
[37] Although paying the annual Zakāt is a common practice in Ramaḍān, the intention in this section of the discussion is to only list charitable acts exclusive to the month of Ramaḍān, and the annual Zakāt must be paid when:
A. The niṣab is acquired
B. One year elapses after acquiring the niṣab, regardless of the month
As a result, Zakāt was intentionally omitted as it is not paid in any particular month. For further clarification, see this article: A Clarification of Some Common Doubts and Misconceptions Affiliated with the Month of Ramaḍān – Doubt/Misconception: The Annual Zakāh Is due when Ramaḍān Commences
[38] Reported by Al-Ḥākim (1571) in his Mustadrak, Al-Bayhaqī (8385) in Al-Kubraá, and others, and Shaykh Al-Albānī deemed it authentic.
[39] Reported by Al-Bukhārī (1904) and Muslim (1151).
[40] Reported by Abū Nuʿaym in Al-Ḥilyah, vol. 1, pg. 382.
[41] Reported by Al-Tirmidhī (697), and Shaykh Al-Albānī graded it authentic.
[42] Sunnan Al-Tirmidhī, vol. 2, pg, 197.
[43] Reported by Ibn Mājah (1660), and Shaykh Al-Albānī authenticated it.
[44] Ṣharḥ Akhṣar al-Muktaṣarāt, vol. 2, pg. 441.
[45] Rasāʾil ʿUlamāʾ al-Sunnah, pg. 46.

Published: March 31, 2024
Edited: April 5, 2024

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