Whoever is combining two prayers or praying a missed ṣalāh, should call the adhān at the start, then call the iqāmah only for each individual farḍh (prayer). Here, there are two issues:
- Combining Prayers: This may occur between Ẓuhr andʿAṣr, or Maghrib and ʿIshāʾ whenever there is difficulty in performing each ṣalāh at its appropriate time regardless of whether this person is travelling or resident. When combining, the adhān should be called for the first ṣalāh only, and then the iqāmah should be called for each farḍh ṣalāh prayed. This should be the course of action if one is not in a town. If he in a residential area, then the local adhān should suffice and he should only call the iqāmah before praying each farḍh ṣalāh.The evidence for this is the authentic narration in Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim on the authority of Jābir (رضي الله عنه) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) called the adhān in ʿArafah, then called the iqāmah and prayed Ẓuhr, then called the iqāmah again before praying ʿAṣr. He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) also did the same in Muzdalifah, calling the adhān and the iqāmah for Maghrib, then calling another iqāmah before praying ʿIshāʾ.1We can also use reasoning to justify these actions as the timing for both prayers has effectively become one. Thus, we suffice with a single adhān but not with a single iqāmah. This is because there is an iqāmah [standing] for every ṣalāh. Thus, the one who combines his prayers calls the adhān once, but calls the iqāmah for each individual ṣalāh.
- Making up Missed Prayer(s): The one who is praying a ṣalāh after its appointed time should also call one adhān and call the iqāmah for each individual farḍh. That is, if one has missed several prayers he should call a single adhān, then call the iqāmah for each farḍh that he prays collectively. As it was authentically narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) called the adhān and the iqāmah in this way during the Battle of al-Aḥzāb. Thus, the evidence for this is in the wording of the passages. We can also use qiyās [analogy] of the actions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) when praying more than one prayer at once, he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) would call a single adhān, but call the iqāmah [before each farḍh ṣalāh] such that the number of iqāmahs called was equal to the number of farḍh ṣalāhs prayed.As for our saying ‘praying a missed prayer, the scholars have said: Performing ṣalāh falls into categories: Adāʾ [performance], Iʿādah [to repeat], and Qaḍāʾ [praying a ṣalāh after its appointed time].
- Adāʾ: Refers to the ṣalāh that is performed within its appropriate time, having never been performed prior.
- Iʿādah: The ṣalāh that is performed for a second time within its specified period. For example, his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying: “If you have prayed during your travel, then come upon the masjid of the people, then pray with them. Indeed, it is counted as nāfilah for you.”2
- Qaḍāʾ: The ṣalāh that is performed after its appointed time. This is based on the most famous opinion adopted by most of the people of knowledge that any ṣalāh that is performed after its appointed time is termed Qaḍāʾ.
There is, however, a second opinion that is more sound, which is that any ṣalāh performed after its appointed time without a valid excuse is not accepted. If there is a valid excuse, then its performance should be considered Adāʾ, not Qaḍāʾ. The evidence of this is the saying of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم): “Whoever misses a ṣalāh due to sleep or forgetfulness should pray it when he remembers.”3 Here, its time is specified as being when he remembers it, just as its time is specified as being when the person awakens if he was asleep. Although, the difference between these two opinions is closer to a difference in semantics as both parties agree that both the adhān and the iqāmah are legislated for the one who performs his ṣalāh after its preappointed time.
 Authentic: narrated by Muslim: 1218.
 Authentic: narrated by Aḥmad 4:160, Abū Dāwūd: 575-576. Graded authentic by Ibn Khuzaymah: 1279, Ibn Ḥibbān: 1564, al-Nawawī in ‘al-Khulāṣah’: 770, and Shaykh al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ Abī Dāwūd: 590.
 Authentic: narrated by al-Bukhārī: 597 and Muslim: 684.
Source: Al-Sharḥ al-Mumtiʿ 2:78-80
Translated by: Riyāḍ al-Kanadī