The Imām, Ibn Qudāmah al-Maqdisī (رحمه الله) mentioned:1 Know, that in the fast (Ṣawm) is a special quality that is not found in anything else. And that is its close connection to Allāh, such that He says:
“The Fast (Ṣawm) is for Me and I will reward it.”2
This connection is enough to show the high status of fasting. Similarly, the Kaʿbah is highly dignified due to its close connection to Him, as occurs in His statement:
“And sanctify My House.”3
Indeed, the fast is only virtuous due to two significant concepts:
The First: It is a secret and hidden action, thus, no one from the creation is able to see it Therefore riyāʾ (showing off) cannot enter into it.
The Second: It is a means of subjugating the enemies of Allāh. This is because the road that the enemies (of Allāh) embark upon (in order to misguide the Son of Ādam) is that of desires. And eating and drinking strengthens the desires. There are many reports that indicate the merits of fasting, and they are well known
The pre-dawn meal (suḥūr) and delaying in taking it are preferable, as well as hastening to break the fast and doing so with dates. Generosity in giving is also recommended during Ramaḍān, as well as doing good deeds and increasing in charity. This is in accordance with the way of the Messenger of Allāh. It is also recommended to study the Qurʾān and perform iʿtikāf (seclusion for worship) during Ramaḍān, especially in its last ten days, as well as increasing upon the exertion (towards doing good deeds) in it. In the two Ṣaḥīḥs, ʿAaʾishah said: “When the last ten days (of Ramaḍān) would come, the Prophet would tighten his waist wrapper (izār)”4 The scholars have mentioned two views concerning the meaning of “tighten his wrapper (izār)” The first is that it means the turning away from women. The second is that it is an expression denoting his eagerness and diligence in doing good deeds. They also say that the reason for: the last ten days of Ramaḍān was due to his seeking of the Night of al-Qadr (Laylat al-Qadr).
There are three levels of fasting: the general fast, the specific fast and the more specific fast.
As for the general fast, then it is the refraining of one’s stomach and their private parts from fulfilling their desires. The specific fast is the refraining of one’s gaze, tongue, hands, feet, hearing and eyes, as well as the rest of his body parts from committing sinful acts. As for the more specific fast, then it is the heart’s abstention from its yearning after the worldly affairs and the thoughts which distance one away from Allāh, as well as its (the heart’s) abstention. From all the things that Allāh has placed on the same level.5 From the characteristics of the specific fast is that one lowers his gaze and safeguards his tongue from the repulsive speech that is forbidden, disliked, or which has no benefit, as well as controlling the rest of his body parts. In a ḥadīth by al-Bukhārī: “Whosoever does not abandon false speech and the acting upon it, Allāh is not in need of his food and drink.”6
Another characteristic of the specific fast is that one does not overfill himself with food during the night. Instead, he eats in due measure, for indeed, the son of Ādam does not fill a vessel more evil than his stomach. If he were to eat his fill during the first part of the night, he would not make good use of himself for the remainder of the night. In the same way, if he eats to his fill for suḥūr, he does make good use of himself until the afternoon. This is because excessive eating breeds laziness and lethargy; therefore, the objective of fasting disappears due to one’s excessiveness in eating, for what is indeed intended by the fast, is that one savours the taste of hunger and becomes an abandoner of desires.
As for the recommended fasts, then know that preference for fasting is established in certain virtuous days. Some of these virtuous days happen every year, such as fasting the first six days of Shawwāl after Ramaḍān, fasting the day of ʿArafah, the day of ʿAshūrāʾ, and the ten days of Dhu al-Ḥijjah and Muḥarram. Some of them occur every month, such as the first part of the month, the middle part of it, and the last part of it. So whoever fasts the first part of it, the middle part of it and the last part of it, then he has done well. Some fasts occur every week, and they are every Monday and Thursday. The most virtuous of the recommended fasts is the fast of Dāwūd. He would fast one day and break his fast the next day. This achieves the following three objectives, the soul is given its share on the day the fast is broken. And on the day of fasting, it completes its share in full. The day of eating is the day of giving thanks and the day of fasting is the day of having patience. And Faith (īmān) is divided into two halves- that of thankfulness and that of patience.7 It is the most difficult struggle for the soul. This is because every time the soul gets accustomed to a certain condition, it transfers itself that. As for fasting every day, then it has been reported by Muslim, from the ḥadīth of Abū Qatādah that ʿUmar (raḍī Allāhu ʿanhu) asked the Prophet (ﷺ): What is the case if one were to fast everyday? So he (ﷺ) said: “He did not fast nor did he break his fast or, he did not fast and he did not break his fast.”8 This is concerning the one who fasts continuously, even during the days in which fasting is forbidden.
Know that the one who has been given intellect, knows the objective behind fasting. Therefore, he burdens himself to the extent that he will not be unable to do that which is more beneficial than it. Ibn Masʿūd would fast very little and it is reported that he used to say: “When I fast, I grow weak in my prayer. And I prefer the prayer over the (optional) fast.” Some of the Companions would weaken in their recitation of the Qurʾān when fasting. Thus, they would exceed in breaking their fast (i.e.. by observing less optional fasts), until they were able to balance their recitation. Every individual is knowledgeable of his condition and of what will rectify it.